Industrial Automation Systems


  • Introduction

 

With these systems, the duties that are normally performed and checked by humans are instead performed by machines and systems.

The history of automation is not very old. It is assumed that first organized automation was made in England towards the end of second half of 18th century after industrial revolution. Some of the important incidents in the last 200 years of fast industrialization are:

  • 1770 Industrial Revolution and mechanization.
  • 1900 Henry Ford and the discovery of production lines
  • Numerically Controlled Machine Tools, 1952 (ABD Air Force, MIT)
  • Fast development of microchip computers towards the end of 1960s.
  • CNC (Computer Aided Numerically Controlled) Machine Tools.
  • Industrial Robots (1970s).
  • Computer Networks (1970s).
  • Factory of the Future: Fully Automatic Flexible Production Systems, 1990s.

Main Subjects of the Control

·         Theory and Applications of Control

o    Control Theory (Classical, State Variables Management, Control through Robust, Adaptive, Fuzzy Logic, vs.)

o    Control and System Dynamics Training

o    Process Control

o    Robotics

·         Automation

o    Discrete Events and Hybrid Systems

o    System Performance Criteria

·         Measurement Systems

o    Real-Time Systems

o    Software Engineering

o    Discrete Events and Networks

o    Artificial Neural Networks

o    Artificial Intelligence

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)

This is a micro-processor based device that process the data it obtains from sensors in compliance with the program that is provided to it and transfers it to work elements.

It is an electronic device designed to be operated in an industrial environment and operates within digital principles.

Application Fields for PLC’s

·         Applications related with Sequence Check

Supervising which floors the elevator will arrive in which order

Determining the sequence of machinery working in a certain position within a production line

·         Applications related with Movement Check

Metal cutting

Metal shaping

Providing supervision in mounting machinery

·         Applications related with Process Check

It can be used in applications that require the supervision of parameters such as temperature, pressure, moisture, speed and flow.

·         Applications related with Data Management

The collection of data which may be generated during all types of process in an organization and the direction of those processes in necessary manner

Collecting data about various machinery and similar equipments within a process.

                  The collected data are;

·         Compared with reference data

·         Reviewed

·         Monitored

·         Transferred to another device in order to be reported

·         Main Units of PLC’s

·         Input Unit

o    The signals coming from the sensors with regards to controlled system such as pressure, level, temperature are obtained from input unit.

o    For example

§  Optical sensors that;

§  Detects any metal

§  Detects an object with its static electrical structure

·         Processor Unit

o    This is the main processor unit that processes the data it obtains from input unit in compliance with the program that is provided to it  and transmits the result as output information.

·         Output Unit

o    Main processor unit processes the input data in compliance with the determined program and then output unit generated necessary control signals for the relevant supervision.

o    For example;

§  Operating an engine,

§  Pushing or pulling an object,

§  Spreading light,

§  Sounding alarm

·         Programming Unit

o    This is the unit by which programs that shall be executed by processor unit is generated. Generally, personal computers are used in order to program PLC’s.

·         The Advantages of PLC’s

·         Flexibility

o    Changes in PLC programs can be done easily and quickly. Also, PLC memory can be increased.

o    Processing Speed

o    PLC can execute a program that consist of logical and arithmetical operations relatively quickly.

o    Imaging

o    The operation of a PLC program and relevant circuit can be directly watched from a monitor. Also, malfunction scanning can be carried out and past operation status can be watched later.

Automobile Plants
Automobile Plants
White Good Plants
White Good Plants
Logistics & Cargo Plants
Logistics & Cargo Plants
Food Plant
Food Plant
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Plant
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Plant
Textile Factory
Textile Factory